A reference grammar of Wappo by Sandra A Thompson; Charles N Li; Joseph Sung-Yul Park

By Sandra A Thompson; Charles N Li; Joseph Sung-Yul Park

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While the forms of many of the inflectional categories differ according the class of verb, the categories themselves are relatively clear. 3, we will present the verb classes and the effect they have on the forms of the inflectional morphemes. 1 Habitual/progressive [= DUR] What we are glossing DUR (for ‘durative’) in this grammar is the inflectional category expressing habitual or progressive actions. 1). Because both DUR and STAT can express what Comrie (1976) identifies as present, we do not use this label.

Here are two such examples: (62) ah uwa pihkahlik - taʔ 1SG:NOM bad ‘I felt bad’ (117) (63) ah maʔa feel - PST nahleʔ olol - taʔ 1SG:NOM just little:while dance - PST ‘I only danced for a little while’ (194) Finally, we note that there is tense variation in our narratives; more data would be needed to generalize. 4 Inchoative [ = INCH; -iš / -eš] The inchoative suffix is used to indicate coming into a state; for example, compare: (64) cephi tuč' - iš - khiʔ 3SG:NOM big - INCH - STAT ‘s/he got big’ (64) with: (65) cephi tuč'a - khiʔ 3SG:NOM big - STAT ‘s/he is big’ (o) Or compare: (66) i ceʔeʔ yomtoʔ 1SG COP doctor ‘I am a doctor’ (o) 44 The Verb Phrase with: (67) ah yomtoʔ - iš - khiʔ 1SG:NOM doctor - INCH - STAT ‘I’ve become a doctor’ (71) Here are some further illustrative minimal pairs: (68) a.

The following example shows that when the head noun is human, both the noun and the adjective are marked for plurality: (70) a. met'e - te k'ena - te woman - PL tall - PL ‘tall women’ (lts89) b. *met'e k'ena - te woman tall - PL c. *met'e - te k'ena woman - PL tall The following examples show that when the head noun is not human, only the adjective takes the plural suffix: 22 The Noun Phrase (71) a. hol k'ena - te tree tall - PL ‘tall trees’ b. *hol - te k'ena - (te) tree - PL tall - (PL) Example (5) also illustrates this point; chica ‘bear’ appears in its singular form, but koṭo:mela ‘big’ is given in its plural form.

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