By Margaret Akinyi Abira
This learn, carried out in Kenya, supplies the 1st perception into the functionality of a developed remedy wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater within the tropics.
The wetland successfully got rid of natural topic, suspended solids, phenols and nutrition. BOD and phenols relief premiums are mentioned for the 1st time. layout parameters and guidance for the set-up and upkeep of a full-scale wetland are suggested. The research concludes that integrating a full-scale wetland, as a tertiary level with the present remedy ponds could considerably increase the standard of water in River Nzoia downstream of the effluent discharge.
This is a precious source publication for scientists, managers and scholars within the box of wetland ecology, water and environmental management.
Read Online or Download A Pilot Constructed Treatment Wetland for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater: Performance, Processes and Implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya, UNESCO-IHE PhD PDF
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Additional info for A Pilot Constructed Treatment Wetland for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater: Performance, Processes and Implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya, UNESCO-IHE PhD
Water Science and Technology 48 (5): 223 - 231. , 1998. Levels of the physico-chemical parameters in the liquid effluents from Pan African Paper Mills at Webuye and in River Nzoia. PhD Thesis, Moi University, Kenya. APHA, 1995. Standard methods for the analysis of water and wastewater, 19th edition. American Public Health Association, Washington DC. J. E. 1986. The effect of treated pulping effluent on a river and lake ecosystem. Tappi Journal (June) pp. 94 - 98. , Cairns Jnr, J. J. ) 1978. Biological data in water pollution assessment: Quantitative and statistical analyses STP6522.
N = tn/ (tn-tp). A tracer peak with a very small standard deviation about the mean residence time is characteristic of plug flow conditions. Subsurface flow wetlands, however, present a time delay (td) before tracer outflow is observed and the flow hydrodynamics may be described by a combination of plug flow and CSTRs. , 1999). They developed a measure for the hydraulic efficiency (λ) that reflects tracer flow characteristics of constructed wetlands and ponds. In its simplest form, λ is the ratio of the time of the peak outflow concentration (tp) to the nominal detention time (tn).
Microbiological quality Microbiological investigations were carried out to determine diversity of bacteria and algae in the ponds. Bacteria were cultured in plate count agar according to Standard Methods (APHA, 1995). Smears on glass slides were examined under a compound microscope (Motic model 3906277 – B1 Series manufactured by System Microscopes). Identification of bacteria to species level was not possible. Algal samples were taken twice from periphyton crusts floating on the surface of the ponds and the effluent channel.