By Graeme Barker
This huge research records the long term human cost historical past of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest career within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the suggestions of archaeology, background and geography, Barker exhibits how cost within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his subject matters and matters together with: techniques to Mediterranean panorama historical past; the trendy panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The common panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric payment; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.1000-500 BC); Pentri, Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization (c.500--80 BC); Roman cities and territories (c.80 BC-600 AD); The evolution of hilltop villages (AD 600-1500); Feudalism and the `Southern query' (AD 1500 to the present).
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First released in 2001. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa corporation.
This huge examine files the long term human cost historical past of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest profession within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the recommendations of archaeology, heritage and geography, Barker indicates how payment within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his issues and matters together with: techniques to Mediterranean panorama historical past; the trendy panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The average panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric cost; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.
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Extra resources for A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley
Apart from poultry and rabbits (the latter traditionally an important 34 THE BIFERNO VALLEY: THE MODERN LANDSCAPE source of meat for the Mezzogiorno contadino), most farms have a couple of pigs and sometimes a few cattle. Before mechanization, oxen, horses or donkeys were needed for working the fields: horses were commonly used in the lower valley for pulling carts, and donkeys as pack animals inland. The most numerous stock, however, were sheep and goats, which are far better adapted to the Mediterranean climate and vegetation than cattle.
Of the two Italys that share the land between them, the peasant Italy is by far the older; so old that no one knows whence it came, and it may have been here forever . . There should be a history of this Italy, a history outside the framework of time, confining itself to that which is changeless and eternal, in other words, a mythology. This Italy has gone its way in darkness and silence, like the earth, in a series of recurrent seasons and recurrent misadventures. Every outside influence has broken over it like a wave, without leaving a trace.
A detailed study of the problem in Molise concluded that virtually everybody living in the vicinity of the river from Boiano to Termoli had malaria (Pietravalle, 1890). The number of deaths from malaria in Molise at that time was amongst the worst anywhere in Mezzogiorno. It was recognized that the construction of the railway in the mid-19th century had generally exacerbated conditions by impeding natural drainage in the lower valley in particular. Large-scale drainage works (bonifica) were undertaken here in the late 19th century, though still only a small fraction 28 THE BIFERNO VALLEY: THE MODERN LANDSCAPE of the land identified as marshy by Del Re was improved.