A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Northeastern and by George A. Petrides

By George A. Petrides

All the wild timber, shrubs, and woody vines within the region north to Newfoundland, south to North Carolina and Tennessee, and west to the Dakotas and Kansas are defined intimately. bills of 646 species comprise form and association of leaves, peak, colour, bark texture, flowering season, and fruit. transparent, exact drawings illustrate leaves, plant life, buds, tree silhouettes, and different characteristics.

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Extra resources for A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Northeastern and north-central United States and southeastern and south-centralCanada (Peterson Field Guides)

Sample text

Therefore, all slopes in the runoff files were categorized as moderate. 36 to 173 square kilometers. The generalized parameters have subsequently been tested against gaged runoff from small watersheds for several development project applications and in a research project. Accounting for soil moisture, groundwater, and streamflow interactions becomes more difficult in the small watersheds, but the generalized parameters still produce adequate simulations. The generalized parameters are used in HSPF models in the Puget Sound basin when local gage data for calibration are not available.

While the generalized parameters are poorly suited to simulate runoff from certain geologic conditions found in the area, experience has shown that the regional parameters provide robust simulations for the large majority of the land in King County. The flows in the runoff files were created with the generalized parameters. The runoff files cannot be calibrated to streamflow data, and if calibration is needed for a project, HSPF must be used. Representation of Local Hydrologic Characteristics Under the runoff files method, the land surface hydrologic response (represented by a time series of unit area land surface runoff) was generated by HSPF for eight soillcover types and for two long-term (40+ years) hourly rainfall stations, one representing the western lowlands of King County and the other representing the foothills and valleys to the east.

The USGS generalized parameters also separated land surfaces into three slopes, flat, moderate, and steep, but these slope categories were not used in the runoff files because subsequent evaluations against gage data questioned their reliability. Therefore, all slopes in the runoff files were categorized as moderate. 36 to 173 square kilometers. The generalized parameters have subsequently been tested against gaged runoff from small watersheds for several development project applications and in a research project.

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